Determinism & Moral Responsibility
- Determinism: all events have sufficient preceding causes
- Indeterminism: some events have random preceding causes
- Predeterminism: all events have a chain of preceding causes
- Fatalism: all events are inevitable, but not necessarily deterministic
- Compatibilism: determinism and free will can coexist
- Incompatibilism: determinism and free will can not coexist
The distinction between determininism and indeterminism is whether a preceding cause makes the future inevitable or is simply enabled. Being sufficient means an event will certainly happen, whereas being necessary means that an event might potentially happen. If all necessary causes are present, then it produces a sufficient cause and thus a deterministic event. If there is a random and/or accidental cause present, then it produces an indeterministic event. A determinist believes that all events have sufficient cause and no random causes are possible.
Free will distinguishes what events we are and are not responsible. Determinism with compatibilism could say that free will is a necessary cause for some events and thus we have moral responsibility for our actions for those particular events. Determininism with incompatalism would say that either every event has a necessary cause of free will for which we're morally responsible or that every event is absent free will for which we're not morally responsible.
Objective and Subjective Reality
- Objective: independent of observer perception
- Subjective: dependent of observer perception
Subjective reality presupposes objective reality. Objective reality doesn't presuppose subjective reality.
Human perception of existence is solely subjective reality. All 1st person perspective statements are subjective, whereas all 2nd and 3rd person perspective statements are objective. So by speaking in the 2nd and 3rd person perspective, we are speaking outside of experience and perception by describing objective reality.
Human perception of inexistence is both subjective and objective reality. Thoughts regarding inexistence first suppose a 3rd person perspective and then subjectively perceives it from the 1st person. Human thought, while it is subjective is still referenced to the objective, regardless if that objective exists in physical reality or not. Objective reality is therefore not dependent on physical existence.